Common OR Setup: The Only Imaging Device is a Mobile X-Ray
Upgrading Common X-Ray Guidance
Spine surgery is one of the most common Operating Room (OR) procedures. The vast majority of surgeries are on a very short spinal segment, performed manually and guided only by standard 2D X-Ray imaging. Common OR setup comprises an operating table, a mobile X-Ray C-Arm and a patient monitor.
The enduring prevalence of X-Ray guided surgery is explained by its simplicity, affordability and freedom in the selection of surgical tools. However, X-Ray also poses concerns. Its inherent inability to image cross-sectional views can lead to errors that are often detected only later, most notably misplaced screws. Additionally, radiation is induced by the acquisition of X-Ray images from multiple directions throughout surgery.
Implants are Imaged in Top and Side Views, No Cross-Sections are Available
At the other end of the cost and complexity spectrum are today’s surgical navigation systems. They require on-tool and on-spine location sensors, a location tracking device, and typically a CT scanner added in the OR. Some are also robot-assisted. “Pain points” include an often-retrofitted operating room, costly hardware, cumbersome operation, restrictive workflow and forcing specific tools and implants. Despite being available for two decades, acceptance is limited mostly to complex inpatient surgeries at large medical centers.